Dellroy Vacuum Cup

How to Find a Vacuum Cup in Dellroy ?

Whether the fabricator’s shop is large or small, the Ironworker is the backbone. The Ironworker isn’t a single machine; it is five machines united into an engineering wonder. It has much more versatility than most people would imagine. The five working sections that are involved in the make-up of this machine are a punch, a section shear, a bar shear, a plate shear, and a coper-notcher.

A number of the cheaper ironworkers are constructed to employ a fulcrum where the ram shakes back and forth, constructing the punch go into the die at a small angle. This normally leads to the erosion of the punch and die on the front rims. The higher quality machines incorporate a ram which moves in a direct vertical line and utilizes modifiable gibs and guides to assure a constant traveling path.

Injection Moulding Manufacturers

When you look for a End of Arm Tooling (EOAT)  that develop a Vacuum Cup in Dellroy, looks for experience and not only pricing.

That gives more life to the tooling, and allows the punch to penetrate the succumb right in the middle in order to capitalize on the machine’s total tonnage.

When looking for a design house that designs a Vacuum Cup in Dellroy  don’t look just in Ohio , other States also have great providers.

Injection Molding Press

Ergonomic Garden Tools - The Most Common Types and What to Consider When Purchasing

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AWS recently announced its new per second billing for its EC2 instances and EBS volumes. This is perfect timing to talk about cost optimization. After a short intro we will guide you through some real world examples and best practices that we use at Teads to optimize our infrastructure costs.

The cloud computing opportunity and its traps

One of the advantages of cloud computing is its ability to fit the infrastructure to your needs, you only pay for what you really use. That is how most hyper growth startups have managed their incredible ascents.

Most companies migrating to the cloud embrace the “lift & shift” strategy, replicating what was once on premises.

You most likely won’t save a penny with this first step.

Main reasons being:

  • Your applications do not support elasticity yet,
  • Your applications rely on complex backend you need to migrate with (RabbitMQ, Cassandra, Galera clusters, etc.),
  • Your code relies on being executed in a known network environment and most likely uses NFS as distributed storage mechanism.

Once in the cloud, you need to “cloudify” your infrastructure.

Then, and only then, will you have access to virtually infinite computing power and storage.

Watch out, this apparent freedom can lead to very serious drifts: over provisioning, under optimizing your code or even forgetting to “turn off the lights” by letting that small PoC run more than necessary using that very nice r3.8xlarge instance.

Essentially, you have just replaced your need for capacity planning by a need for cost monitoring and optimization.

The dark side of cloud computing

At Teads we were “born in the cloud” and we are very happy about it.

One of our biggest pain today with our cloud providers is the complexity of their pricing.

It is designed to look very simple at the first glance (usually based on simple metrics like $/GB/month or $/hour or, more recently, $/second) but as you expand and go into a multi-region infrastructure mixing lots of products, you will have a hard time tracking the ever-growing cost of your cloud infrastructure.

For example, the cost of putting a file on S3 and serving it from there includes four different lines of billing:

  • Actual storage cost (80% of your bill)
  • Cost of the HTTP PUT request (2% of your bill)
  • Cost of the many HTTP GET requests (3% of your bill)
  • Cost of the data transfer (15% of your bill)

Our take on Cost Optimization

  • Focus on structural costs - Never block short term costs increase that would speed up the business, or enable a technical migration.
  • Everyone is responsible - Provide tooling to each team to make them autonomous on their cost optimization.

The limit of cost optimization for us is when it drives more complexity in the code and less agility in the future, for a limited ROI. 
This way of thinking also helps us to tackle cost optimisation in our day to day developments.

Overall we can extend this famous quote from Kent Beck:

“Make it work, make it right, make it fast” … and then cost efficient.

Billing Hygiene

It is of the utmost importance to keep a strict billing hygiene and know your daily spends.

In some cases, it will help you identify suspicious uptrends, like a service stuck in a loop and writing a huge volume of logs to S3 or a developer that left its test infrastructure up & running during a week-end.

You need to arm yourself with a detailed monitoring of your costs and spend time looking at it every day.

You have several options to do so, starting with AWS’s own tools:

  • Billing Dashboard, giving a high level view of your main costs (Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, etc.) and a rarely accurate forecast, at least for us. Overall, it’s not detailed enough to be of use for serious monitoring.
  • Detailed Billing Report, this feature has to be enabled in your account preferences. It sends you a daily gzipped .csv file containing one line per billable item since the beginning of the month (e.g., instance A sent X Mb of data on the Internet). 
    The detailed billing is an interesting source of data once you have added custom tags to your services so that you can group your costs by feature / application / part of your infrastructure. 
    Be aware that this file is accurate within a delay of approximately two days as it takes time for AWS to compute the files. 
    UPDATE (June ‘18) Detailed Billing is officially deprecated, use the Cost and Usage Report instead.
  • Trusted Advisor, available at the business and enterprise support level, also includes a cost section with interesting optimization insights.
Trusted Advisor cost section - Courtesy of AWS
  • Cost Explorer, an interesting tool since its update in august 2017. It can be used to quickly identify trends but it is still limited as you cannot build complete dashboards with it. It is mainly a reporting tool.
Example of a Cost Explorer report — AWS documentation

Then you have several other external options to monitor the costs of your infrastructure:

  • SaaS products like Cloudyn / Cloudhealth. These solutions are really well made and will tell you how to optimize your infrastructure. Their pricing model is based on a percentage of your annual AWS bill, not on the savings that the tools will help you make, which was a show stopper for us.
  • The open source project Ice, initially developed by Netflix for their own use. Recently, the leadership of this project was transferred to the french startup Teevity who is also offering a SaaS version for a fixed fee. This could be a great option as it also handles GCP and Azure.

Building our own monitoring solution

At Teads we decided to go DIY using the detailed billings files.

We built a small Lambda function that ingests the detailed billing file into Redshift every day. This tool helps us slice and dice our data along numerous dimensions to dive deeper into our costs. We also use it to spot suspicious usage uptrends, down to the service level.

This is an example of our daily dashboard built with chart.io, each color corresponds to a service we taggedWhen zoomed on a specific service, we can quickly figure out what is expensive

On top of that, we still use a spreadsheet to integrate the reservation upfronts in order to get a complete overview and the full daily costs.

Now that we have the data, how to optimize?

Here are the 5 pillars of our cost optimization strategy.

1 - Reserved Instances (RIs)

First things first, you need to reserve your instances. Technically speaking, RIs will only make sure that you have access to the reserved resources.

At Teads our reservation strategy is based on bi-annual reservation batches and we are also evaluating higher frequencies (3 to 4 batches per year).

The right frequency should be determined by the best compromise between flexibility (handling growth, having leaner financial streams) and the ability to manage the reservations efficiently. 
In the end, managing reservations is a time consuming task.

Reservation is mostly a financial tool, you commit to pay for resources during 1 or 3 years and get a discount over the on-demand price:

  • You have two types of reservations, standard or convertible. Convertible lets you change the instance family but comes with a smaller discount compared to standard (avg. 75% vs 54% for a convertible). They are the best option to leverage future instance families in the long run.
  • Reservations come with three different payment options: Full Upfront, Partial Upfront, and No Upfront. With partial and no upfront, you pay the remaining balance monthly over the term. We prefer partial upfront since the discount rate is really close to the full upfront one (e.g. 56% vs 55% for a convertible 3-year term with partial).
  • Don’t forget that you can reserve a lot of things and not only Amazon EC2 instances: Amazon RDS, Amazon Elasticache, Amazon Redshift, Amazon DynamoDB, etc.

2 - Optimize Amazon S3

The second source of optimization is the object management on S3. Storage is cheap and infinite, but it is not a valid reason to keep all your data there forever. Many companies do not clean their data on S3, even though several trivial mechanisms could be used:

The Object Lifecycle option enables you to set simple rules for objects in a bucket :

  • Infrequent Access Storage (IAS): for application logs, set the object storage class to Infrequent Access Storage after a few days. 
    IAS will cut the storage cost by a factor of two but comes with a higher cost for requests. 
    The main drawback of IAS is that it uses 128kb blocks to store data so if you want to store a lot of smaller objects it will end up more expensive than standard storage.
  • Glacier: Amazon Glacier is a very long term archiving service, also called cold storage. 
    Here is a nice article from Cloudability if you want to dig deeper into optimizing storage costs and compare the different options.

Also, don’t forget to set up a delete policy when you think you won’t need those files anymore.

Finally, enabling a VPC Endpoint for your Amazon S3 buckets will suppress the data transfer costs between Amazon S3 and your instances.

3 - Leverage the Spot market

Spot instances enables you to use AWS’s spare computing power at a heavily discounted price. This can be very interesting depending on your workloads.

Spot instances are bought using some sort of auction model, if your bid is above the spot market rate you will get the instance and only pay the market price. However these instances can be reclaimed if the market price exceeds your bid.

At Teads, we usually bid the on-demand price to be sure that we can get the instance. We only pay the “market” rate which gives us a rebate up to 90%.

It is worth noting that:

  • You get a 2 min termination notice before your spot is reclaimed but you need to look for it.
  • Spot Instances are easy to use for non critical batch workloads and interesting for data processing, it’s a very good match with Amazon Elastic Map Reduce.

4 - Data transfer

Back in the physical world, you were used to pay for the network link between your Data Center and the Internet.

Whatever data you sent through that link was free of charge.

In the cloud, data transfer can grow to become really expensive.

You are charged for data transfer from your services to the Internet but also in-between AWS Availability Zones.

This can quickly become an issue when using distributed systems like Kafka and Cassandra that need to be deployed in different zones to be highly available and constantly exchange over the network.

Some advice:

  • If you have instances communicating with each other, you should try to locate them in the same AZ
  • Use managed services like Amazon DynamoDB or Amazon RDS as their inter-AZ replication costs is built-in their pricing
  • If you serve more than a few hundred Terabytes per months you should discuss with your account manager
  • Use Amazon CloudFront (AWS’s CDN) as much as you can when serving static files. The data transfer out rates are cheaper from CloudFront and free between CloudFront and EC2 or S3.

5 - Unused infrastructure

With a growing infrastructure, you can rapidly forget to turn off unused and idle things:

  • Detached Elastic IPs (EIPs), they are free when attached to an EC2 instance but you have to pay for it if they are not.
  • The block stores (EBS) starting with the EC2 instances are preserved when you stop your instances. As you will rarely re-attach a root EBS volume you can delete them. Also, snapshots tend to pile up over time, you should also look into it.
  • A Load Balancer (ELB) with no traffic is easy to detect and obviously useless. Still, it will cost you ~20 $/month.
  • Instances with no network activity over the last week. In a cloud context it doesn’t make a lot of sense.

Trusted Advisor can help you in detecting these unnecessary expenses.

Key takeaways

Thank you for reading. This article was inspired by the talks I made during the #2 AWS Montpellier Meetup and Devops D-Day conference.

Devops D-Day 2017 — Marseille

If you like working on big cloud infrastructures and growth challenges, feel free to contact us, we are constantly looking for great teammates.

If you want to know more about Engineering at Teads:

About Teads Engineering
100+ Innovators Reinventing Digital Advertisingmedium.com End Effector Design

Today, we’re announcing Dart 2, a reboot of the language to embrace our vision of Dart: as a language uniquely optimized for client-side development for web and mobile.

With Dart 2, we’ve dramatically strengthened and streamlined the type system, cleaned up the syntax, and rebuilt much of the developer tool chain from the ground up to make mobile and web development more enjoyable and productive. Dart 2 also incorporates lessons learned from early adopters of the language including Flutter, AdWords, and AdSense, as well as thousands of improvements big and small in response to customer feedback.

Dart’s Core Tenets

Before we talk more about the advances in Dart 2, it’s worth identifying why we believe Dart is well positioned for the needs of client-side developers.

In addition to the attributes necessary for a modern, general purpose language, client-side development benefits from a language that is:

  • Productive. Syntax must be clear and concise, tooling simple, and dev cycles near-instant and on-device.
  • Fast. Runtime performance and startup must be great and predictable even on small mobile devices.
  • Portable. Client developers have to think about three platforms today: iOS, Android, and Web. The language needs to work well on all of them.
  • Approachable. The language can’t stray too far from the familiar if it wishes to be relevant for millions of developers.
  • Reactive. A reactive style of programming should be supported by the language.

Dart has been used to ship many high-quality, mission-critical applications on the web, iOS, and Android at Google and elsewhere and is a great fit for mobile and web development:

  • Dart increases developer velocity because it has a clear, succinct syntax and is able to run on a VM with a JIT compiler. The latter allows for stateful hot reload during mobile development, resulting in super fast dev cycles, where you can edit code, compile and replace in the running app on the device.
  • With its ability to efficiently compile to native code ahead of time, Dart provides predictable, high performance and fast startup on mobile devices.
  • Dart supports compilation to native code (ARM, x86, etc.) for fast mobile performance as well as transpilation to efficient JavaScript for the web.
  • Dart is approachable to many existing developers, thanks to its unsurprising object-oriented aspects and syntax that — according to our users— allows any C++, C#, Objective-C, or Java developer to be productive in a matter of days.
  • Dart works well for reactive programming with its battle-hardened core libraries, including streams and futures; it also has great support for managing short-lived objects through its fast generational garbage collector.

Dart 2: Better Client-Side Development

In Dart 2, we’ve taken further steps to solidify Dart as a great language for client-side development. In particular, we’ve added several new features including strong typing and improving how UI is defined as code.

Strong, Sound Typing

The teams behind AdWords and AdSense have built some of Google’s largest and most advanced web apps with Dart to manage the ads that are bringing in a large share of Google’s revenue. From working closely with these teams, we identified a big opportunity to strengthen Dart’s type system. This helps Dart developers catch bugs earlier in the development process, better scale to apps built by large teams, and increase overall code quality.

This isn’t unique, of course. In the broader web ecosystem, there’s also a growing trend towards adding type annotations to JavaScript. For example, TypeScript and Flow both extend JavaScript with type annotations and inference to improve the ability to analyze code.

In the small example below, Dart 2’s type inference helps uncover a somewhat subtle error and as result, helps improve overall code quality.

What does this code do? You could reasonably expect that it would print ‘27’. But without Dart 2’s sound type system enabled it prints ‘10000’, because that happens to be the least element in the list of strings when ordered lexicographically. With Dart 2, however, this code will give a type error.

UI as Code

When creating UI, having to switch between a separate UI markup language and the programming language that you’re writing your app in often leads to frustration. We’re striving to make the definition of UI as code a delightful experience to dramatically reduce the need for this context switching. Dart 2 introduces optional new and const. This much-requested feature is very valuable on its own, and also sets the direction for other things to come. For example, with optional new and const we can clean up the definition of a UI widget so that it doesn’t use a single keyword.

Client-Side Uses of Dart

Mobile

One of the most significant uses of Dart is for Flutter, Google’s new mobile UI framework to craft high-quality native interfaces for iOS and Android. The official app for the hugely popular show Hamilton: The Musical is an example of what Flutter is enabling developers to build in record time. Flutter uses a reactive programming style and controls the entire UI pixel by pixel. For Flutter, Dart fits the bill in terms of ease of learning, reactive programming, great developer velocity, and a high-performance runtime system with a fast garbage collector.

Web

Dart is a proven platform for mission-critical web applications. It has web-specific libraries like dart:html along with a full Dart-based web framework. Teams using Dart for web development have been thrilled with the improvements in developer velocity. As Manish Gupta, VP of Engineering for Google AdWords, explains:

The AdWords front-end is large and complex, and is critical to the majority of Google’s revenue.We picked Dart because of the great combination of perf and predictability, ease of learning, a sound type system, and web and mobile support.Our engineers are two to three times more productive than before, and we’re delighted we switched.

Moving Forward

With Flutter and Dart, developers finally have the opportunity to write production-quality apps for Android, iOS, and the web with no compromises, using a shared codebase. As a result, team members can fluidly move between platforms and help each other with, e.g., code reviews. So far, we have seen teams like AdWords Express and AppTree share between 50% and 70% of their code across mobile and web.

Dart is an open source project and an open ECMA standard. We welcome contributions to both the Dart core project and the ever growing ecosystem of packages for Dart.

You can try out Dart 2 in Flutter and the Dart SDK from the command line. For the Dart SDK, get the latest Dart 2 pre-release from the dev channel and make sure to run your code with the --preview-dart-2 flag. We also invite you to join our community on gitter.

With the improvements announced today, Dart 2 is a productive, clean, battle-tested language that addresses the challenges of modern app development. It’s already loved by some of the most demanding developers on the planet, and we hope you’ll love it too.

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